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Phylloid Tumor (Cystosarcoma Filloides)
It accounts for less than 1 percent of all breast tumors. Most of them (such as fibroadenomas) are benign tumors. It can grow very fast and rarely malignant forms can be found. On examination, it presents as a firm and mobile mass.
Clinically, it can be confused with giant fibroadenomas. It is pathologically distinguished from giant fibroadenomas by its clinical recurrence and spread to other organs. It is extremely difficult to differentiate fibroadenomas from phylloides tumors on ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging. Definitive differentiation is made by surgical removal of the entire mass and pathologic examination.
The main treatment for phyllodes is surgical removal of the mass. For the benign ones, removal of a small amount of normal breast tissue from the surrounding area is sufficient for treatment.
Following the removal of the breast, prosthesis can be placed in the same session with plastic surgery operations. Phyllodes tumors do not spread to the axillary lymph nodes. Therefore, no intervention is made for the axillary lymph nodes. Local recurrences often occur in the breast.
Overall 5-year survival rates are 91 percent for benign phyllodes and 82 percent for malignant phyllodes. In patients with benign phylloides, treatment is entirely surgical. Only some of the malignant cases (high-risk ones) can be treated with radiation therapy to the chest wall and chemotherapy (drug therapy).